A formidable enemy that is, in fact, not native to Mauritius, but probably hails from Indonesia and surrounds. A tough climber with wicked thorns, it invades even forest canopy, swamping and pulling down large established trees. It is out of control at Ferncliffe.
The Agricultural Research Council disapprovingly notes additional effects: excessive water consumption, increased fire risk, and injury to animals and humans. One needs tough gear to get at the core stems of these invaders: even small shoots rip skin. There is no successful biocontrol agent available.